UNIT II BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6 Evolution of Buddhism Buddhist thought, art and culture Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism Interaction of Hellenic & Indian Ideas in Northern India Evolution of building typologies- The Stupa, Vihara and the Chaitya hall Symbolism of the STUPA Architectural production during Ashoka's - Ashokan Pillar Rock cut caves at Barabar - … The Hindu caves that are located at different places across India are sort of extensions of Buddhist cave architecture with of course certain alterations in architecture and design suiting the Hindu customs and traditions. Although many temples, monasteries and stupas have been destroyed, by contrast cave temples are very well preserved as they are both less visible and therefore less vulnerable to vandalism as well as made of more durable material than wood and masonry. Q.  Many believe it to be the site in which Buddha spent some time before his death, and where the first Buddhist council was held after the Buddha died (paranirvana). Allen &Co. Buddhist architecture, Lee Huu Phuoc, Grafikol 2009, Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992, World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 ʻAlī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, 2008, Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums, by George Michell, Roli Books Private Limited, 1 mai 2013, "This hall is assigned to the brief period of, "History of Architecture - Early civilizations", "10 most amazing ancient rock cut structures in India", The Early History of India by Vincent A. Smith, "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent - Classification of Indian Architecture through the Ages", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Buddhist_caves_in_India&oldid=990714378, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 02:45. This statue is situated in cave no. Objective: Students will explore the dichotomy between craft and fine art while investigating Ruth Asawa’s sculpture work and identity. Of these caves, mostly build by Emperor Ashoka and his grandson Dasaratha for the ascetic sect of the Ajivikas, two caves are thought to have been dedicated to the Buddhist: Karan Chaupar cave, and possibly the Lomas Rishi cave. The Ajanta Caves are approximately 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. The major features of this style are: •Stupas (Buddhist shrine) •Stambhas (Pillars) •Chaityas (Caves) •Vihaaras (Monasteries) • Out of these, the prominent examples of Chaitya Hall and Viharas can be found in Rock-Cut Architecture. A walk through Sana Caves takes you to exciting viharas, which refers to pillared verandahs containing one or two cells. The cave has 39 octagonal-shaped pillars, painted with standing and seated Buddhas. Lies on ancient trade route- dakshinpatha. This may be due to the fact that Mauryan caves where dedicated and sponsored by the Mauryan Imperial government, allowing for huge resources and efforts to be spent, whereas later caves were essentially the result of donations by commoners, who could not afford as high a level of spending. Among the images of peaceful deities are those of buddhas and bodhisattvas, great teachers, and high monks. The walls are polished in the Mauryan style. There are two main types of cave structures at Ajanta. The last Buddhist caves were built around the 6th century CE.. These are carved out of a rock of about 80 metres high and about 380 metres long. The phase of excavation of these caves is from 4th century AD to 8th century AD. Photo by Olivier Laude, 1999. Its close family likeness to Cave No.12 at Ajanta and others at Bhaja and Kondane, all of the earliest age, suggest about the same date. Caves offered practical shelter during the rainy (monsoon) season in India. In western India, early Buddhist cave is found at Bhaja (near Poona). Most other Buddhist caves are then found in the western Deccan, consisting in shrines and monasteries, dating between 100 BCE and 170 CE. Earliest known examples of rock-cut architecture belong to Buddhism. Cave 6 has a rectangular columned hall off which smaller halls open, each with two cells. Art and Culture: Summary of Class XI NCERT. The caves of Ajanta are related to both Hinayana and Mahayana sect of Buddhism. Cave temples are cavities of various sizes that are chiseled directly out of solid rock, sometimes directly on the face of sheer cliffs. the health and safety of our community, we are temporarily closed. Art and architecture features of Buddhist caves The Buddhist caves are considered to be the living examples of “Indian rock-cut architecture”. , In the 3rd century BCE Indian rock-cut architecture began to develop, starting with the already highly sophisticated and state-sponsored Barabar caves in Bihar, personally dedicated by Ashoka to the ascetic sect of the Ajivikas circa 250 BCE.  The precise identity of the Ajivikas is not well known, and it is even unclear if they were a divergent sect of the Buddhists or the Jains. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. Historically, rock-cut temples have retained a wood-like theme in adornment; skilled craftsmen learned to mimic timber texture, grain, and structure. 12 Buddhist caves(1-12) 17 Hindu Caves(13-29) 5 Jaina Caves(30-34) Best example of Religious Harmony; Other Monasteries: Buddhist Architecture: C. Chaityas The caves at Ajanta also contain the earliest surviving group of paintings from ancient India (other than prehistoric evidence). The Buddha is symbolized by his throne.  The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, a World Heritage Site, are located on the edge of the Deccan Plateau, where dramatic erosion has left massive sandstone outcrops.  Many of these structures contain works of art of global importance, and many later caves from the Mahayana period are adorned with exquisite stone carvings. , In India, caves have long been regarded as places of sanctity. Some of the more sumptuous cave temples, commissioned by wealthy traders, included pillars, arches, and elaborate facades during the time maritime trade boomed between the Roman Empire and south-east Asia. The greater chunk of around 1200 surviving cave temples is Buddhist. The Ajanta caves preserve some of the best masterpieces of Buddhist art in India. The Ajanta Caves constitute ancient monasteries and worship-halls of different Buddhist traditions carved into a 75-metre wall of rock. , The chaitya at Bhaja Caves is perhaps the earliest surviving chaitya hall, constructed in the second century BCE. Buddhist monastics gained the support of some of India’s ancient rulers. Many of these structures contain works of art of global importance, and many later caves from the Mahayanaper… A halk-flower medallions design on a pillar of Cave No.19, typical of early designs such as those of Sanchi. This cave is numbered 26, and dates from the later period—around the 470s. This is one of a series of caves excavated out of the volcanic rock that extends along a cliff overlooking the Wagora River at Ajanta, about two hours north of the present-day city of Aurangabad, in Maharastra state in western India. 1 It is against this backdrop of carved caves that the two monumental Buddha images were carved.  When the Satavahanas recovered lost territory from the Western Satraps, they again pursued construction efforts as seen in Nasik Caves and Kanheri Caves. gregheffley Expert; HEY MATE! Buddhist art reached its highest watermark during the Gupta period in the paintings at Ajanta (caves, I, II, XVI … The residences of monks were called Viharas and the cave shrines, called Chaityas, were for congregational worship. The other main structure was the worship hall or shrine, called a chaitya. Buddhism became the dominant religion in the 3rd to 2nd century B.C. One of the most exquisite examples of Indian Art and Architecture, can be found in the caves of Ellora and Ajanta. Also one more architecturally celebrated feature is the Kailasanatha temple which is there in the Hindu group of caves. The cave is remarkable as the painted ceiling includes large medallions, delicate bands of lotus flowers, scrollwork and abstract geometric patterns. Sculptures inside the rock cut caves There are numerous Chaityas and Viharas in these caves which clearly indicate that it was the center of Buddhist study. The construction of the worship halls depicted the architecture of Christian … Rock-cut architecture occupies a significant place in the history of Indian architecture. • On the delicately fluted central columns, miniature dwarves stand with arms raised (yellow highlights in Fig. Objective: Students will consider how public art promotes civic participation and social commentary by 1) researching Bay Area public art and completing research assignments or, 2) submitting grant proposals for hypothetical public art. It became an important center for Buddhist religion and art under the enlightened patronage of the Vakataka rulers. in "The Art of Ancient India: Buddhist, Hindu, Susan L. Huntington Jain, Weatherhill, 1985, p. 48, Le Huu Phuoc, Buddhist architecture, p.99, The cave temples of India, Fergusson, James, W.H. There are more than 1,500 known rock cut structures in India, out of which about 1000 were made by Buddhists (mainly between 200 BCE and 600 CE), 300 by Hindus (from 600 CE to 1200 CE), and 200 by Jains (from 900 CE to 1200 CE). The original stupas contained the Buddha’s ashes. It is smaller than the Barabar caves, measuring only 4.91x3.43m, with a ceiling height of 2.01m. In Buddhism and Christianity however, instead of statues, monks or … , After the Barabar caves, the earliest known rock-cut Buddhist monasteries date to the 1st century BCE in the Western Ghats in western India. The Ajanta caves provide direct evidence of early Buddhist art, patronage, and architectural forms that would influence the spread of Buddhism and Buddhist imagery across Asia. Worship could take place anywhere and at anytime. This is important, because we know that Mahayana Buddhism was becoming more popular at this time, and with it, multiple images of the Buddha in human form, as well as images of supporting figures known as bodhisattvas, appear abundantly in Buddhist art. Buddhism also appealed to merchants and laypersons.  The Buddha himself had also used the Indrasala Cave for meditation, starting a tradition of using caves, natural or man-made, as religious retreats, that would last for over a millennium.. , Alternatively, it has been suggested that the next stage of artificial caves building at Barabar was such a remarkable feat of engineering, with the use of large-scale polishing techniques without precedents in the history of India, that they were probably due to foreign influence, and derived from the stone-working techniques of the Achaemenids, having spread to India after the destruction of the empire by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and the displacement of Persian and Perso-Greek artists and technicians. At the centre of the apse was the stupa shape.  The very act of digging artificial caves in the rock, of which the Barabar caves represent the oldest case in India, was probably inspired by the caves dug in the rock of the Achaemenids, as is the case in Naqsh-e Rostam. Cave 12 in Ajanta, another early vihara with monk cells. We know the chaitya represented here (cave 26) is a later development, because the rock-cut image of the seated Buddha appears, as if emerging out of the stupa (in the lower center part of the photograph). More than 45 rock shelters were found in the Pangaroria area, which is a Buddhist site with multiple stupas and dwellings. For the residence of the monks rooms were hewn out of the rocks and thus began the cave architecture at Barabar hills in Gaya and at Nasik. , Later many Hindu kings from southern India patronize many cave temples dedicated to Hindu gods and goddesses. Many Buddhist cave created by the Vakatakas in a remote ravine near the ancient town of Ajanta that form a devotional complex which ranks one of the world’s most startling achievements. Natural caves continued to be used for a long time, and over a rather wide area, as shown by the Saru Maru caves (also known as Pangoraria or Budhani caves) in Madhya Pradesh. Plan of Cave 12 in Ajanta. The caves of the later phase include two finished caityas (caves 19 and 26), several large and fully decorated vihāras (e.g., caves 1, 2, 4, 16, 17) and some unfinished caves. The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture, pose and form. 4. The Buddha meditating in the Indrasala Cave. , According to Gupta, the Saru Maru caves also display a certain level of man-made improvements, such as the creation of rock-cut steps and benches for monks. Q. Architectural History FEATURES OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6.  Ashoka came here as a young prince when he was governor of the northwest, based in Vidisha, as shown by a commemorative inscription in one of the two natural caves. Most of the caves are in the form of Viharas having dormitories attached to them.  The earliest of the Kanheri Caves were excavated in the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C., as were those at Ajanta, which were occupied continuously by Buddhist monks from 200 BCE to 650 AD. In general, Ajanta caves reflect the brilliant Buddhist art that rose and flourished during the reigns of Chalukya and Rashtrakuta rulers. Cave 26 in fact contains an inscription stating that the donor was a powerful monk by the name of Buddhabhadra, and it was dedicated to a former minister of a rival group who were about to overrun the Vakataka dynasty. At the time this cave and others at Ajanta were excavated, India was ruled by the Gupta dynasty and in the western Deccan region by the Vakatakas, whose king Harishena (reigned 460–478 CE) was a follower of the Brahmanic (Hindu) traditions. , The oldest rock-cut architecture in India is found in the Barabar caves, Bihar built around the 3rd century BCE. Lesson 7 of 15 • 132 upvotes • 6:36 mins. The Western Ghats topography, with its flat-topped basalt hills, deep ravines, and sharp cliffs, was suited to their cultural inclinations. Kanha inscription of cave No.19 (located on the upper sill of the right window). Worship could take place anywhere and at anytime. The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture, pose and form.  The Indo-Scythian dynasty of the Western Satraps too sponsored numerous Buddhist caves, as seen from their dedications at Karla Caves, Manmodi Caves or Nasik Caves. Cave No.19 at the Nasik Caves has one inscription of king Krishna of the Satavahanas, which is the oldest known Satavahana inscription, dated to 100-70 BCE. It is a type of Architecture in which a structure or cave is carved out form solid natural rocks. Architectural elements are borrowed from: The earliest caves employed by humans were natural caves used by local inhabitants for a variety of purposes, such as shrines and shelters. Several simple viharas started to be cut in the rock, such as Cave 19 of the Nasik Caves. People performed circumambulation around the stupa which is surrounded by pillars. It analyses the various cultural, historical and religious phenomena that shaped the caves at Aurangabad through the first seven centuries of the Common Era and it comments on the Buddhist tradition of the western Deccan as a … September 2013 ; Arts 2(3):134-150; DOI: 10.3390/arts2030134. , Although free standing structural temples were also being built, such as the Bairat Temple (3rd century BCE) and the various free-standing apsidal temples in Sanchi, Taxila or Ter, rock-cut cave temples continued to be built in parallel. Table summing up the contrasting features are as follows , The affiliation of the last two caves to Buddhism would be coherent with the fact that the architecture of the gate of Lomas Rishi became a reference for the development of the Chaitya arch in Buddhist cave architecture for the following centuries, whereas the Hindus or the Jains caves essentially did not follow this architectural example. The Caves of Ajanta. GRADE LEVEL: Early Elementary School (K-3), Elementary School (4-5), GRADE LEVEL: Pre-Kindergarten, Early Elementary School (K-3), Elementary School (4-5), Middle School (6-8), High School (9-12), College and Beyond, GRADE LEVEL: Middle School (6-8), High School (9-12), College and Beyond, GRADE LEVEL: Elementary School (4-5), Middle School (6-8), High School (9-12), GRADE LEVEL: Elementary School (4-5), Middle School (6-8), High School (9-12), College and Beyond, GRADE LEVEL: High School (9-12), College and Beyond, © 2021 Asian Art Museum – Chong-Moon Lee Center for Asian Art and Culture. Early examples included overhanging rock decorated with rock-cut designs. The cost involved in the rock-cutting and the refined polishing work was probably enormous, and was never replicated again in subsequent caves. The first wave of caves is from … Save. The aerial view of the site looks … The Ajanta caves predate the caves equally famous at Ellora, but they are entirely Buddhist. Architectural History FEATURES OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 11. The caves are a focal point of interest for scholars, researchers and students too.  Ashoka dedicated the caves of Sudama and Visvakarma to the Ajivikas in the 12th year of his reign, when his religious evolution towards Buddhism was not yet fully completed. To support the health and safety of our community, we are temporarily closed. The work of the monastery. , The earliest rock-cut chaityas, similar to free-standing ones, consisted of an inner circular chamber with pillars to create a circular path around the stupa and an outer rectangular hall for the congregation of the devotees. Write a short note on Buddhist caves in India (200 words) Note: there are many Buddhist caves, I’m listed only a few good & easy to remember caves associated with Satvahan that way it can be “fit” into both type of questions. It was the discovery of this cave by the British soldier John Smith that … Also one more architecturally celebrated feature is the Kailasanatha temple which is …  Huge efforts were made at building religious caves in Western India until the 6th century CE. Other than these well-known examples, It also produced other works of art that are still famous world over.  These artificial caves exhibit an amazing level of technical proficiency, the extremely hard granite rock being cut in geometrical fashion and polished to a mirror-like finish. Arts and humanities Art of Asia South Asia Gupta period. Objective: Students will be exposed to East Asian art traditions through the lens of a contemporary Chinese American artist, Bernice Bing. The earliest cave temples include the Bhaja Caves, the Karla Caves, the Bedse Caves, the Kanheri Caves, and some of the Ajanta Caves. Although the sculpture, particularly the rich ornamentation of the caitya pillars, is noteworthy, it is the fresco-type paintings that are the chief interest of Ajanta.  The Great Chaitya of the Karla Caves, the largest in South Asia, was constructed and dedicated in 120 CE by the Western Satraps ruler Nahapana. It is a group of 22 rock-cut caves and depicts a typical early phase of Buddhist architecture marked by deep apsidal hall cut in solid rock, with a row of plain octagonal pillars near the walls. Made of brick or excavated from stone, the residences of monks are called viharas, while the cave shrines used for worship are called chaitya grihas. Architectural features and Ornamentation- Striking features of these caves include a 15 meters tall statue of Lord Buddha. About 1200 Jain and Buddhist cave structures have been fo… These caves were excavated as a part of the first wave of cave architecture in India. Wild animal are depicted around the cave (Stupa 1 Northern Gateway, Sanchi. This is a study that focuses on the art and architecture of a group of Buddhist rock-cut monuments excavated on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau in India. There are early caves at Ajanta, from about the same time as the stupa at Sanchi (approx. This freedom resulted in the emergence of Buddhist cave architecture throughout Asia.   The caves include paintings and sculptures described by the government Archaeological Survey of India as "the finest surviving examples of Indian art, particularly painting",  which are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. Here we have brief covered all the remaining topics which were left out in the first 2 lessons .  This, like a similar facade at the Bedse Caves is an early example of what James Fergusson noted in the nineteenth century: "Everywhere ... in India architectural decoration is made up of small models of large buildings".. It is a small Vihara, 14 feet 3 inches square, with six cells, two on each side; their doors are surmounted by the Chaitya-arch ornament connected by a frieze of "rail pattern" in some places wavy. 2. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. Here’s what to expect when we reopen. Gautamiputra vihara at Pandavleni Caves built in the 2nd century CE by the Satavahana dynasty. These paintings depict colourful Buddhist legends and divinities with an exuberance and vitality that is unsurpassed in Indian art. Commenting of Mauryan sculpture, John Marshall once wrote about the "extraordinary precision and accuracy which characterizes all Mauryan works, and which has never, we venture to say, been surpassed even by the finest workmanship on Athenian buildings". Relics found in these caves suggest a connection between the religious and the commercial, as Buddhist missionaries often accompanied traders on the busy international trading routes through India. 14) on the four corners of the compressed cushion capitals, as if supporting the massive brackets above. To Hariti's left (in shadow) is her consort Panchika, also known as Kubera. This created the appearance of an ancient Indian mansion. ~Cave number 6: The unique feature of this cave is the figure of Hindu Goddess of learning, 'Saraswati' whom the Buddhist called, 'Mahamayuri'.We can also find figures of river Goddesses, 'Ganga' and 'Yamuna.' About 1200 Jain and Buddhist cave structures have been fo… The first was the stupa, a significant object in Buddhist art and architecture. , Probably owing to the 2nd century BCE fall of the Mauryan Empire and the subsequent persecutions of Buddhism under Pushyamitra Sunga, it is thought that many Buddhists relocated to the Deccan under the protection of the Andhra dynasty, thus shifting the cave-building effort to western India: an enormous effort at creating religious caves (usually Buddhist or Jain) continued there until the 2nd century CE, culminating with the Karla Caves or the Pandavleni Caves. The area's many caves and grottos have yielded primitive tools and decorative rock paintings. Numerous donors provided the funds for the building of these caves and left donatory inscriptions, including laity, members of the clergy, government officials, and even foreigners such as Yavanas (Greeks) representing about 8% of all inscriptions. 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