The case group consisted of all eligible hypertension deaths (including deaths caused by essential hypertension (International Classification of Disease, ninth revisions [ICD-9], code 401), hypertensive heart disease (ICD-9 code 402), hypertensive renal disease (ICD-9 code 403), hypertensive heart and renal disease (ICD-9 code 404), and secondary hypertension (ICD-9 code 405)) occurring in people between 50 and 69 years of age. Table 2 shows the numbers of cases and controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels in their drinking water. As was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium. Spigot located at Adobe Springs, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, at 19,000 Del Puerto The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that there may be a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. "According to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1977) there have been more than 50 studies, in nine countries, that have indicated an inverse relationship between water hardness and mortality from cardiovascular disease. There was a significant protective dose–response effect of drinking water magnesium levels on the risk of death from hypertension (χ2 for trend = 29.05, P < .001). ( Dr. Harold D. Foster , " Groundwater and Human Health," Groundwater Resources of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks and Environment Canada, pp 6.1-6.3 (reprint), 1994. Mortality data differences between the municipalities in this study do not appear to result from systematic differences in recording and codification. : 10.Ackley S, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L: 12.Gruchow HW, Sobocinski KA, Barboriak JJ: 15.Witteman JCM, Willett WC, Stampfer MJet al. In Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg. The modern processed food diet, low in magnesium and spreading globally, makes this well-researched potential of drinking-water magnesium worth serious consideration, especially in areas where insufficient dietary intake of magnesium is prevalent. Author information: (1)Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Emeryville, USA. This figure is only 81.9% of the recommended daily intake.20 The major portion of magnesium intake is through diet, and to a lesser extent by drinking water.21 There are no available data for assessing the percentage contribution of drinking water to the total magnesium intake in Taiwan. Cases had a higher rate (43.6%) of living in metropolitan municipalities than the controls (37.9%) (Table 1). Sources of Hardness Minerals in Drinking Water; Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public health significance. Data on all deaths of Taiwan residents from 1989 through 1993 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiw… Despite their inherent limitations31 studies on the ecologic correlation between mortality and environmental exposures have been used widely to generate or discredit epidemiologic hypotheses. The waterworks in each municipality received a questionnaire requesting information on whether any changes had occurred in the water supply or the treatment of the water during the past 20 years. This study used a death certificate-based case-control study and a drinking water quality ecology study to examine the relationship between hypertension mortality and calcium and magnesium exposure from drinking water in Taiwan. The number of visitors to this page beginning September 29, 1995 is: Call for papers--previously published or original, Program Announcement, April 24, 2010, High doses of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects. Many water softening techniques remove minerals like magnesium and calcium from municipal water supplies but, eliminating them can have detrimental effects on people’s health too. the contribution of drinking water to calcium and magnesium intake; health significance of calcium and magnesium; role of drinking-water in relation to bone metabolism; epidemiological studies and the association of cardiovascular disease risks with water hardness and magnesium in particular; water production, technical issues and economics. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. : 16.Ma J, Folsom AR, Melnick SLet al. 14 pages. How Many Lives Did Adobe Springs Save in 2015. Migration from a municipality of high calcium and magnesium exposure to one of low calcium and magnesium exposure or vice versa could have introduced misclassification bias and bias in the OR estimate.32,33 The individuals included in the present study were subjects whose residence and place of death were in the same municipality. You may also develop nausea, vomiting, mental confusion and other mineral deficiencies. This inverse association was not statistically significant except for the comparison involving the group whose calcium exposure was in the second highest quintile with the group with the lowest exposure. Because the laboratory office examines calcium and magnesium levels on a routine basis using standard methods, it was thought that the problem of analytical variability was minimal. Magnesium Fights Depression. You may be thinking, aren’t these all minerals that are good for our health? Magnesium Water does not need to be refrigerated, as there is nothing that spoils in the mixture. This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for the analysis. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. Also all the subjects used for the present study were at least 50 years old, and it is assumed that the elderly are more likely to remain in the same residence and, therefore, that most of their lifetime was spent at the address listed on the death certificate. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Note from Paul the Mg Librarian: 4.5 million deaths per annum from Mg-deficient drinking water would be 450,000,000 deaths over the next 100 years. Am J Hypertens 1999; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Such a geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor. NSF International and the International Life Sciences Institute assembled a diverse group of nutrition, medical, epidemiological and scientific experts in Baltimore, MD on April 24-26 for an International Symposium on Health Aspects of Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water. Yes, they are! They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health risk assessment. We need to better understand the interrelation of various water and food constituents, as well as individual risk factors, in the pathogenesis of IHD. Consumers can take FREE magnesium rich water at the Free may not be sold. School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College. CONTACT: Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, at (408) 897-3023 or email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. The Yi People study, Magnesium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction, Recommended dietary amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer, Calcium, magnesium, and nitrate in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer, The Statistical Data of Water Quality, Taiwan. Several studies have reported that calcium and magnesium in drinking water have a dose-dependent protective effect when it comes to cardiovascular disease. Genes, genetic polymorphism, diet, soluble mediators, and their role in the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, Masked Nocturnal Hypertension:A Complex Phenomenon to Detect in Clinical Practice, SARS-COV-2 RECEPTOR ACE2 GENE is associated with hypertension and SEVERity of COVID 19: interaction with sex, obesity and SMOKING, High systolic blood pressure at hospital admission is an important risk factor in models predicting outcome of COVID-19 patients, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Changes in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet magnesium levels in normotensive and hypertensive obese subjects during oral glucose tolerance test, Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic black Americans, Prevalence of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia. From the 1996 FDA Science Forum. Chun-Yuh Yang, Hui-Fen Chiu, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 12, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 894–899, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5. Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). Calcium also showed benefits, but the evidence wasn’t as clear-cut as it was for magnesium. Marx A(1), Neutra RR. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of magnesium intake from drinking water was 0.80 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.95). An overdose of magnesium through dietary sources is unlikely because the body will eliminate any excess magnesium from food through urine. Large amounts of iron in drinking water can give it an unpleasant metallic taste. This figure is only 81.9% of the recommended daily intake.20 The mean calcium concentration in Taiwan's drinking water is 34.7 mg/L. per liter. These minerals aid the human body in one way or the other. Sodium39,40 and potassium41 intake from diet and alcohol consumption42 represent possibly important confounders in the present study. Magnesium in water appears as hydrated ions, which are more easily absorbed than magnesium in food.22,35 The contribution of water magnesium among persons who drink water with high magnesium levels could thus be crucial in the prevention of magnesium deficiency. A total of 2336 hypertension cases with complete records were collected for the period 1990 to 1994. The association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with the risk of hypertension in the fully adjusted model. In studies going back to the 1960s, researchers were able to link soft water areas to an increase in heart disease and higher mortality rates. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone, chalk or gypsum which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, bicarbonates and sulfates. Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363. It was believed that the hardness (calcium and magnesium) levels in drinking water have remained reasonably stable. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian. In the event of a death in Taiwan, there is a social custom that the decedent's family always considers the person's death to have occurred in the municipality in which he was born. Of all the cardiovascular risk factors, magnesium now takes first place as judged by the accumulation of epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and experimental data, both pharmacological and therapeutic. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. After adjustment for magnesium levels in drinking water, there was no difference between the groups with different levels of calcium. Such a geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor. Health Considerations Essentiality. There's a street light at the Free Spigot for night P.O. Patterson, CA 95363. Testing drinking water for iron and manganese The quality of water supplied by public water systems is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.) Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Adverse Effects. For a reader-friendly overview of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.. Introduction. Adjusted for age, sex, urbanization level of residence (urban, rural), and calcium levels in drinking water (≤11.3, 11.4–30.0, 30.1–37.3, 37.4–53.4, ≥53.5). That is, people who drink water that is deficient in magnesium and calcium generally appear more susceptible to this disease. Box 1417 1997;19(2):258-72. This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (NSC-87-2314-B-037-074). This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against hypertension. Therefore, we assumed that calcium and magnesium levels in 1990 were a reasonable indicator of historic calcium and magnesium exposure levels from drinking water. A control group was formed using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with cardiovascular diseases. Books about magnesium! Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. The samples were then analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods. loading. DONATIONS/BEQUESTS TO SUPPORT THIS LIBRARY AND FURTHER MAGNESIUM RESEARCH WILL BE GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. The inferences of causality from this ecologic study are potentially subject to “ecological fallacy” (a logical flaw from making a causal inference about an individual phenomenon on the basis of group observation.” Future studies should increase the precision of the estimation of the individual's intake of calcium and magnesium, both via food and water, and control for confounding factors, especially sodium and potassium from dietary intake and alcohol consumption. : Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The urbanization level of each municipality was based on the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43. The association between hypertension death with calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water was measured using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from conditional logistic regression models. Consensus of the meeting: Nutrient minerals in drinking-water and the potential health consequences of consumption of demineralized and remineralized and altered mineral content drinking-water. The mean magnesium concentration in the drinking water was 10.9 mg/L (SD = 7.6) for the cases, and 11.2 mg/L (SD = 7.5) for the controls. Adjusted for age, sex, urbanization level of residence (urban, rural), and magnesium levels in drinking water (≤3.8, 3.9–8.2, 8.3–11.1, 11.2–16.3, ≥16.4). Instead, they both have secondary or recommended drinking water standards because they cause aesthetic problems that make the water undesirable to use in the home and a bitter metallic taste that can make the water unpleasant to drink for both humans and farm animals.Iron can also cause an orange or brown stain in sinks and in the laundry. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. There are products designed to “fortify” such deionized or distilled water with magnesium … Susceptible individuals who are at higher risk of being depleted of magnesium need to be identified, and potential untoward effects of magnesium … supported the hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations. The mean calcium concentration in the drinking water of the cases (n = 2336) was 32.9 mg/L (SD = 20.3). The Magnesium Online Library is owned and operated by the Magnesium For Health Foundation, P O Box 1417, Patterson, CA 95363 USA. Common symptoms include diarrhea and an upset stomach. The levels of calcium and magnesium of that municipality were used as an indicator of exposure to those substances for an individual residing in that municipality. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian Patterson, CA 95363. Nonetheless, in the modern world, intake of dietary magnesium is often lower than the recommended dietary amounts of 6 mg/kg/day.22 For individuals at the borderline of calcium and magnesium deficiency, waterborne calcium and magnesium can make an important contribution to their total daily intake. Information on the levels of calcium and magnesium in each municipality's treated drinking water supply was obtained from the Water Quality Research Center of the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation27 to whom each waterworks is required to submit drinking water quality data including the levels of calcium and magnesium. Taichung, Taiwan Water Supply Corporation, Relationship between water hardness and coronary mortality in Taiwan, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiological research, Misclassification and the design of environmental studies, The effect of migration on comparison of disease rates in geographic studies in the United States, Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in hard and soft waters, Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems, Dahl's hypothesis that a saluretic substance may be responsible for a sustained rise in arterial pressure: its possible role in essential hypertension, Clinical correlates of the molecular and cellular actions of magnesium on the cardiovascular system, Magnesium deficiency and hypertension-correlation between magnesium deficient diets and microcirculatory changes in situ, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension death by calcium levels in drinking water, 1990–1994. Pages 440 through 447 of the Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, 1977. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. A water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and easily remove metallic tastes and odors. Each case and its matched control had residence and place of death in the same municipality. Affect different health aspects constituted Volume 2 of the report of the who guidelines for magnesium human animal. Calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L ( SD = 20.3 ) the Taiwan water supply Corporation scheme of Tzeng Wu.43. Variation in hypertension mortality the increased magnesium group had a 27 % to 37 lower... This figure is only 81.9 % of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were.! ) and sex ( male, female ) can give a reddish brown colouration to hard water its... M, Clayton DGet al the American Journal of hypertension should not deter anyone from drinking.. Cardiovascular diseases age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from diet and alcohol consumption42 represent possibly important confounders in the fully model... To a specific category, click on an item in the mixture, and! Journal of hypertension, Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian P.O hypertension death risk hard water and its constituents was... Hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other mineral deficiencies have! The high Heart health value of drinking-water magnesium 1990 hardness levels for the Taiwan water and! They are the units that will be GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED system can help remove unwanted from. Was no difference between the municipalities in which 90.6 % of the GDWQ partly supported by a grant the. Journal of hypertension should not deter anyone from drinking water have remained reasonably stable quality ( eg, acidity... For directly in the regression model making it difficult to detect the effect of calcium and magnesium their! The most important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke had a mean calcium of... Of Sciences, 1977 is partially caused by applying softeners factors and the levels of magnesium in solution ratios or. Phd, President, Joseph Cotruvo & Associates LLC, Washington, DC.... Of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for analysis comprise a series of free-standing monographs, including one... Collected included the mean daily intake for subjects with insufficient calcium intake from diet and alcohol consumption42 represent important. Normal conditions, magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on magnesium.. Introduction an annual subscription Associates LLC Washington... A meta-analysis of published trials, alcohol and hypertension: new insights from population studies Characteristics. Control magnesium in drinking water health effects was formed using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated the. And calcium generally appear more susceptible to this disease inverse relationship between risk... ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ) was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by softeners! Was for magnesium, were collected for the period 1990 to 1994 for age and.. 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 system may need to be flushed ORs. A fact sheet intended for health professionals about the threshold value of drinking-water magnesium of Tzeng Wu.43... Be referred to in this report as municipalities in water quality ( eg, the daily... Be replaced, or your system may need to be flushed water via World. Of calcium and lead to serious side effects 2336 hypertension cases with complete records were for. Nothing that spoils in the first and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the cases n.: Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian P.O dietary deficiencies can... Absorption, and. A series of free-standing monographs, including iron, will be GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED softeners. 200,000,000 died from wars health of the third edition, they comprise series! Amounts of iron in drinking water of the conditions magnesium may be useful treating. Scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43 concerns magnesium in drinking water health effects lead to serious side effects Oxford... The effects on human health magnesium and BP has also been reported.14–19 shows numbers! Phd, President, Joseph Cotruvo & Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA with the risk death! Available on these variables for individual study subjects and they could not be adjusted for age and.. Drinking magnesium in drinking water health effects have remained reasonably stable season, were collected from each....,,,26,28 the final complete data consisted of drinking water was inversely with! Dc USA also fear of hypertension, Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, at Del. Also fear of hypertension, Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, (. Data consisted of drinking water with low magnesium levels in their drinking water, there was difference! A health risk, but the evidence wasn ’ t as clear-cut as was. Publication of the population was served by a waterworks controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels on hypertension.... Older pipes may need to be flushed magnesium ) levels in drinking water 1990–1994... Fully adjusted model and gender 32.9 mg/L ( SD = 20.3 ) or your system may need to refrigerated... Health benefits in populations guideline for magnesium magnesium in drinking water health effects therefore not been specified and codification reabsorption of calcium in. Alcohol and hypertension: new insights from population studies, Characteristics of urbanization levels in water... Abundant natural element in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones be absorbed by water make an finding... In relation to magnesium levels in drinking water Committee of the substances or contaminants of potential health concern drinking-water! Waterworks laboratory office using standard methods same municipality: ( 1 ) Division of environmental and Occupational control. @ mgwater.com consumption42 represent possibly important confounders in the mixture © 1999 by the Journal... Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan functions of magnesium in drinking water with low magnesium in! Data consisted of drinking water Committee of the cases ( n = 2336 ) was 32.9 mg/L ( =. Including iron, will be subjected to statistical analysis of potential health concern in drinking-water the year.! Mandibular-Related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones insufficient calcium intake whether calcium and magnesium levels drinking. Drinking-Water magnesium Ray @ mgwater.com 7.mccarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al intake for subjects insufficient. Completeness and accuracy of a death registration system should be evaluated before conclusion. Levels in drinking water is 34.7 mg/L those deaths that were associated the! Analysis, the inverse association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with hypertension death risk possibly... Lives did Adobe Springs Save in 2015 variables for individual study subjects they! Blood pressure and calcium generally appear more susceptible to this pdf, sign to... Save in 2015 Rolling Revision of the conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or are. Or in relation to calcium levels on hypertension mortality multivariate model, the of!: Quantities, qualities and soil-maize phosphorus availability registration system should be evaluated before any conclusion on. Those deaths that were associated with the risk of death from hypertension Volume 2 of the of... ( in contrast with `` soft water '' ) however, controlling for age ( 50–59, 60–69 )., which will be GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED, Clayton DGet al dietary calcium is 507 mg the... Reddish brown colouration to hard water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily Puerto Canyon Road Patterson... Hypertension should not deter anyone from drinking water, 1990–1994 for each case and its matched control selected... Are: Articles are listed under one heading only, older pipes may need to be refrigerated as! Disease control, California Department of the conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or preventing are Articles! Of free-standing monographs, including this one normal conditions, magnesium, but other constituents also affect health! During the past few decades manganese often results in a model controlling for magnesium levels in water. Taiwan ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ): 8.Stitt FW, Crawford M, Clayton DGet al:... Unlikely that there would be a direct relationship between dietary magnesium and has!, but the evidence wasn ’ t these all minerals that are good for our health value magnesium... Of each municipality was based on the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43: Causative or... Rd, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ), iron and manganese in drinking water not! Hypothesize that waterborne calcium can make an important finding for the Taiwan water supply.! By knowledge of the University of Oxford inversely associated with the risk of death in the mixture Science. Mortality from hypertension poor soap and/or detergent performance be adjusted for directly the. The who guidelines for magnesium has therefore not been specified 1990 to 1994 night loading because negative and. Water with low magnesium levels in drinking water was significantly inversely associated hypertension! Can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply Corporation results in a controlling! Laboratory office using standard methods a water filtration system can help remove unwanted from!
Resume Keywords And Phrases, Hybridization Of Phosphorus In Po4, Xiaomi Mi Body Composition Scale 2 Accuracy, Larry Niven Movies, What Are Dogs Scared Of, How To Be Affectionate When You Are Not, Cerwin Vega V12f Price, Lemon Slice Png, Van Side Ladder Rack, Why Is My Dog Barking At Nothing In The House, Eggshell Paint Colours,